Saturday, August 23, 2008



Type about:config in the address bar, Then look for the following entries, and make the corresponding changes.


network.http.max-connections-per-server =32

network.http.max-persistent-connections-per-proxy =16

network.http.max-connections = 64

network.http.max-persistent-connections-per-server = 10

network.http.pipelining = true

network.http.pipelining.maxrequests = 200

network.http.request.max-start-delay = 0

network.http.proxy.pipelining = true

network.http.proxy.version = 1.0

Top 10 Tips for Linux Users

Top 10 Tips for Linux Users
Everyone develops their favorite tips and tricks for using Linux based on their own experience and the kind of work they are doing. Here are some of mine freind has given to me (actually I am not much familier with LINUX , so one of my friend from US has sent me the article on LINUX) . These tips may seem simple, but I've found it's often the simple tricks that are the most useful in day-to-day work.

1. Switch to another console. Linux lets you use "virtual consoles" to log on to multiple sessions simultaneously, so you can do more than one operation or log on as another user. Logging on to another virtual console is like sitting down and logging in at a different physical terminal, except you are actually at one terminal, switching between login sessions.

Virtual consoles are especially useful if you aren't running X, but you can use them even if you are.

In early versions of the kernel (pre-1.1.54), the number of available virtual consoles was compiled into the kernel. With more recent kernels, 63 virtual consoles are available, with 6 set up by default in the file /etc/inittab.

Use the key combination Alt+Fn to switch between virtual consoles, where Fn is one of the function keys F1-F6. (If you are in X, you'll probably need to use Ctrl-Alt-Fn instead.) Alt+F7 gets you back to your X session, if one is running. You can rotate between consoles with the Alt-right arrow and Alt-left arrow key combinations.

2. Temporarily use a different shell. Every user account has a shell associated with it. The default Linux shell is bash; a popular alternative is tcsh. The last field of the password table (/etc/passwd) entry for an account contains the login shell information. You can get the information by checking the password table, or you can use the finger command. For example, the command "finger ellen" shows, among other things, that I use /bin/tcsh.

Related Reading
Linux in a Nutshell

Linux in a Nutshell
By Ellen Siever, Stephen Spainhour, Jessica P. Hekman, Stephen Figgins
Table of Contents
Sample Chapter

Read Online--Safari Search this book on Safari:

Code Fragments only

The command chsh changes the login shell for all future logins; that is, it changes the account entry in the password table to reflect the new shell. However, you can also temporarily use another shell at any time by simply running the new shell. For example, if I want to try something out in bash, I can type "bash" at the prompt and be put into a bash shell. Typing either Ctrl-d or exit gets rid of that shell and returns me to my tcsh session.

3. Print a man page. Here are a few useful tips for viewing or printing manpages:

To print a manpage, run the command:

man | col -b | lpr

The col -b command removes any backspace or other characters that would make the printed manpage difficult to read.

Also, if you want to print a manpage that isn't in a standard man directory (i.e., it's in a directory that isn't specified in the MANPATH environment variable), you can specify the full pathname of the manpage, including the full filename:

man /work/myapp/mymanpage.1

If you use the Emacs editor, you can view a manpage with the command Meta-x man; Emacs then prompts you for the name of the manpage. You can view the page or print it as you would any other Emacs buffer.

As a last resort, you can format the manpage directly with the groff command. However, the default output is a PostScript file, so you'll want to either send it to a PostScript printer or to a viewer such as ghostview:

groff -man /work/myapp/mymanpage.1 | ghostview -i

You can get ASCII output with the -a option, but the result is unformatted text. Not pretty to read, but it might suffice if nothing else works.

4. Use command substitution to simplify complex operations. Command substitution lets you use the output of one command as an input argument to another command. To use command substitution, determine what command will generate the output you want, put that command in backquotes, and use it as an argument to another command. For example, I often use command substitution to recursively grep the files in a directory tree:

grep 'Title' `find /work -type f -name 'chap*' -print` > chaptitles

The portion of this command in backquotes is a find command that builds a list of chapter files in the /work directory. That list is then used to provide the set of input files for grep to search for titles. The output is saved in a file called chaptitles.

5. Look inside a non-text file. Sometimes you really want to see inside a binary file. Maybe there isn't a manpage and you're looking for usage information, or perhaps you're looking for information about who wrote a program or what application a file is associated with.

The strings command is perfect for that purpose--it searches through a file looking for sequences of printable character strings and writes them to standard output. You can pipe the output through a pager like more, or if you are looking for particular text, you can pipe the output to the grep command.

6. Use the locate command. Looking for an easier way to find files than the find command? Try using locate. In contrast to find's complexity, locate is the ultimate in simplicity. The command:


searches an internal database and prints the pathnames of all files and directories that contain the given string in their names. You can narrow down the search by piping the output to grep. For example, the following finds all files containing the string "kde" that are in bin directories:

locate kde | grep bin

The strings don't have to be complete names; they can be partial strings, such as "gno" instead of spelling out "gnome". The -r option lets you use a regular expression (in quotes):

locate -r 'gno*'

One thing to be aware of is that locate is case-sensitive: Searching for HOWTO and for howto will give you different results.

Rather than searching the disk each time, as find does, locate depends on the creation and maintenance of a database. Because it only has to search the database, not the disk, locate is faster than find. On the other hand, the results are only as current as the database.

The locate database is generally updated daily by a cron job, but you can update it manually by running the command updatedb (usually as root). If you are adding new applications or deleting old files and you don't want to wait for the next day to have an up-to-date database, you might want to run it manually.

7. Use dmesg to view startup messages. The dmesg command provides an easier way to see the boot messages than trying to read them before they scroll off the screen. When Linux boots, the kernel startup messages are captured in a buffer known as the kernel ring buffer; dmesg prints the contents of that buffer. By default, dmesg prints its output to the screen; you can of course redirect the output to a file:

% dmesg > bootmsg

8. Find out what kernel version you are using. Do you ever need to know what version of the Linux kernel is running on your system? You can find out with the uname command, which prints information about the system. Issued with the -r option, uname prints the kernel version:

% uname -r

Other uname options provide information such as the machine type, the name of the operating system, and the processor. The --all option prints all the available information.

9. Use df and du to maintain your disk. Use the df (display filesystem) command to keep an eye on how much space each of your filesystems occupies and how much room is left. It's almost inevitable that if you like to download new software and try it out, you'll eventually fill up your disk. df has some options, but running it without options provides the basic information--the column labeled Use% tells you how full each filesystem is:

% df Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/hda3 1967156 1797786 67688 96% /

Oops, time to clean house... and that's where du (disk usage) comes in handy. The du command provides the information you need to find the big space users, by printing the amount of disk space used for each file, subdirectory, and directory. You can specify the directory du is to start in, or let it default to the current directory.

If you don't want to run du recursively through subdirectories, use the -s option to summarize. In that case, you need to specify all the directories you are interested in on the command line. For example:

% du -s /usr/X11R6
142264 /usr/X11R6

% du -s /usr/X11R6/*
34490 /usr/X11R6/bin
1 /usr/X11R6/doc
3354 /usr/X11R6/include

97092 /usr/X11R6/lib
7220 /usr/X11R6/man
106 /usr/X11R6/share

With the information provided by du, you can start in the directories that occupy the most disk space and delete or archive files you no longer actively use.

10. Permit non-root users to mount or unmount drives. While hard drives are normally mounted automatically when the system is booted, other drives such as the floppy drive and the CD-ROM are generally not mounted until they are going to be used, so that disks can be inserted and removed. By default, root privileges are required for doing the mount (or unmount). However, you can modify the entries in the filesystem table, /etc/fstab, to let other users run the mount command. Do this by adding the option "user" to the appropriate entry:

/dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy auto noauto,user 0 0 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro,user,unhide 0 0

You can see what filesystems are currently mounted, and what options they were mounted with, by looking at the file /etc/mtab or by running the mount command with no options or arguments.



If you are using a BroadBand connection at your home and using Windows Xp as your Operating System, and you feel that your BB speed is a bit less, then in that case you have the option to increase your Broadband speed upto 20%.

HOW? Well this is what you need to do.

1. First of all make sure you are logged in as Administrator.
2. Go to Start -> Run -> gpedit.msc, press OK.
3. Then go to Computer Configuration -> Administrative Templates -> Network -> QoS packet Scheduler.
4. On the right it will give you the option of “Limit Reservable bandwidth”, open and and select “Enabled”, and change the value to 0.

Hack Admin Password From User Mode

Hack Admin Password From User Mode

Follow these steps:
1. Open command prompt (Start->Run->cmd),

2. Enter the followin command, then press ENTER:
3.This should open the computer management console.
4. Go to local users & groups->users. Right click on any user and select "set password".

If you get a "access denied" do the following:

then use following commands
1) net user test /add (this command will make test named user)
2) net localgroup administrators test /add (this command will make test user as administrators rights)

and use net user command to reset your admin. password

Improve Hard Disk Speed

Improve Hard Disk Speed

If hard disk of your computer or server is taking too much time to get the result, then to improve your hard disk speed you will need to configure a special buffer in the computer’s memory in order to enable it to better deal with interrupts made from the disk. This tip is only recommended if your computer or server has 256MB RAM or higher.

Step 1:

Run SYSEDIT.EXE from the Run command.

Step 2:

Expand the system.ini file window.

Step 3:

Scroll down almost to the end of the file till you find a line called [386enh].

Step 4:

Press Enter to make one blank line, and in that line type


Note: This line IS CASE SENSITIVE!!!

Step 5:Click on the File menu, then choose Save.

Step 6:

Close SYSEDIT and reboot your computer or server.


Speed improvement will be noticed after the computer reboots.



uTorrent was very slow for me until recently I applied a few tweaks. Here’s what I did.

Note: Some of the settings mentioned below are optimized for 256k connection. If you want to calculate the optimal settings for your connection, check at the end of this tutorial. But I suggest you to read the entire tutorial for guidance on other settings.
First go to Options>Preferences>Network

1. Under ‘Port used for incomming connections’, enter any port number. It is best to use a port number above 10000. I use 45682.
2. Randomize port each time utorrent starts: UNCHECKED. I leave this unchecked because I have a router. If you do not have a router or a firewall, and want extra security,check this option.
3. Enable UPnP port mapping (Windows Xp or later only): UNCHECKED. I leave this unchecked because I have experienced it slowing down speeds. It is not needed if you manually port forward.
4. Add utorrent to Windows Firewall exceptions (Windows XP SP2 or later only): UNCHECKED (do this only if you have windows firewall disabled)
5. Global Maximum upload rate (kb/s): [0: unlimited]: 22 (for 256k connection)
6. Protocol Encryption: ENABLED. I would recommend everyone to enable this. This can help increase speeds with many ISPs.
7. Allow incoming Legacy Connections: CHECKED

Network Settings

1. Global Maximum Number of Connections: 130 (for 256k connection)This number should not be set too low or the number of connections made to your torrents will be limited. Setting it too high may cause too much bandwidth to be used and can cause slowdowns.
2. Maximum Number of connected peers per torrent: 70 (for 256k connection)If you see that the peers connected to a specific torrent are exactly this number, or very close, increase this number to improve speeds.
3. Number of upload slots per torrent: 3 (for 256k connection)This depends on how much you want to upload to other users. Do not set too low or it may affect download speeds.
4. Use additional upload slots if upload speed <90%: CHECKED
5. Maximum number of active torrents: 2 (for 256k connection)
6. Maximum number of active downloads: 1 (for 256k connection)
7. Enable DHT Network: CHECKEDThis is recommended to be checked to improve speeds. More people will be available for sharing if this is checked.
8. Enable DHT for new torrents: CHECKED
9. Enable Peer Exchange: CHECKED
10. Enable scrapping: CHECKED
11. Pre-allocate all files: CHECKED
12. Append .!ut to incomplete files: UNCHECKED

Torrent Settings

net.max_halfopen: 50

If you use Windows XP SP2, patch tcpip.sys with LvlLord’s Event ID 4226 Patcher to get better performance.

DO NOT CHANGE THIS OPTION unless you have Windows XP SP2 and have patched tcpip.sys.

You can also patch tcpip.sys with xp-Antispy

If you have a firewall

* Open up the options/preferences/settings for the firewall - usually your firewall will have an icon to click in the taskbar
* Look for the keywords “allow list” or “programs”
* Add the application you want to give access to the internet
* Make sure to save your settings when you are done

If you have a router

1. Go to start>run>type cmd, press enter>type ipconfig, press enter
2. Remember both your ip address and your default gateway
3. Type in your default gateway into your default browser, a password prompt may come up. The default username and password are admin for my router
4. Under ‘Applications’ fill out one line for each p2p client you use
5. You need to use your ip address, the correct port range and set either tcp or udp
6. You can find and change the ports in the actual p2p client’s settings, just make sure they are the same in the router
7. Most p2p apps need both tcp and udp checked, if you are not sure check your p2p client’s FAQ
8. Save your settings

:!: Check to forward ports for uTorrent.

Some of the settings I mentioned above are relative to my bandwidth.

How to calculate optimal settings for your connection

In order to apply the following tips you need to know your maximum upload and download speeds. You can test your bandwidth over here.
Maximum upload speed

If you use your Maximum upload speed, there won’t be not enough space left for the files you are downloading. So you have to cap your upload speed.

This is how I calculate my optimal upload speed…

upload speed * 80%
Maximum download speed

Setting your maximum download speed to unlimited will hurt your connection. So use this to calculate your optimal setting.

download speed * 90%
Maximum connected peers per torrent

upload speed * 1.3
Maximum upload slots

1 + (upload speed / 6)
Disable Windows Firewall

Windows Firewall hates P2P and so disable it and get yourself a decent firewall like Zone Alarm.

And last optimize your Internet connection with TCP Optimizer.

Know any other tricks to increase uTorrent’s download speed? Please share them here.



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But u all only If dont comments then its Better we should stop Blogging....